Current scientific data on COVID-19 and Lactoferrin

As already reported in the previous post (Lactoferrin and virus-defense), the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of Lactoferrin make it a potential candidate in the treatment of Covid-19 positive patients [1].
A study in 2011 showed that Lactoferrin is capable of preventing SARS-CoV binding onto HSPGs [2].
In vitro studies in 2020 demonstrated that Lactoferrin can inhibit SARS-CoV2 in the early stages, as well as when the infection is under way [3,4].
Recently, application studies on the efficacy of Lactoferrin in the prevention and therapy of COVID-19 have begun. Initial results offer a cautiously optimistic assessment of how Lactoferrin could play a role in the treatment of COVID-19.
Preliminary results from a randomised, prospective, interventional study look positive.  Oral and intra-nasal Lactoferrin was used in the treatment of mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. [5]
This study examined whether recovery time was shortened in infected patients treated with Lactoferrin and documented efficacy in improving symptoms and eliminating the virus. Lactoferrin was found to induce “early viral clearance and a fast clinical symptoms recovery in addition to a statistically significant reduction of D-dimer, Interleukin-6 and ferritin blood levels”.  The researchers conclude that Lactoferrin could be used in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients to prevent deterioration due to SARS-CoV2.  They suggest further research with larger samples, as well as long-term investigations, are needed.
In a prospective observational study of 75 COVID-19 patients with typical symptoms, the subjects were given Lactoferrin in combination with zinc [6].
These patients showed a significant reduction in COVID-19 associated symptoms within the first 4-5 days. In addition, a preventive effect of Lactoferrin was demonstrated in the patients‘ contacts.
Another placebo-controlled study by the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru is currently underway. The lead scientist, Theresa Ochoa, MD, PhD, is investigating the preventive effects of Lactoferrin being administered to healthcare professionals [7].
They will be investigating the number of infections occurring, as well as the severity and disease progression. 
The scientific findings thus far offer hope that Lactoferrin could make a valuable contribution to the prevention and therapy of COVID-19. We eagerly await new data and we will report accordingly.